Cardiac asthma is not the same as bronchial asthma, but it causes similar symptoms. Bronchial asthma is triggered by allergies, pollutants, exercise, stress, or lung disease. The small airways in the lungs become irritated and inflamed due to these triggers. This inflammation results in wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath. Cardiac asthma can cause similar symptoms, but cardiac asthma is caused by the backup of fluid in the left side of the heart. This fluid backup can be the result of a heart that pumps weakly or because of a leaky valve or a heart defect that’s present at birth (congenital). This is a sign of congestive heart failure.
The difference matters because the treatments for bronchial asthma and cardiac asthma are very different. Bronchial asthma is treated with oral or inhaled medicines that open the airways. The treatments for cardiac asthma depend on the cause (such as heart failure or leaky valve), but may include heart medicines to control blood pressure and remove excess fluid, proper diet, and modified daily activities. If the cause is a leaky valve or congenital heart defect, over time surgery may be needed.