Aplastic anemia is a rare blood disorder. It may be diagnosed in children, teens, and young adults. It happens when bone marrow, the spongy tissue inside bones, doesn’t make enough red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Red blood cells carry oxygen through the bloodstream to all areas of the body. White blood cells fight infections. Platelets help blood clot if bleeding starts.
Researchers don't know why some children have this bone marrow problem. Symptoms develop when blood cells aren’t replaced fast enough. Red blood cells live for about 120 days. Platelets live for about 7 to 10 days. White blood cells live for less than 1 day.
If your child's red blood cell count gets too low, he or she may tire easily. Bleeding may occur if platelets are low. Infections may develop if white blood cells are low.
These are symptoms of aplastic anemia:
Bruising or bleeding
Rapid heart rate
Shortness of breath
Treatment for aplastic anemia will depend on the age of the child and how severe the anemia is. Treatments often need to be repeated, and sometimes several types of treatment may be tried in order to find the one that works best.
Your child's treatment may be managed by a hematologist. This is a doctor who specializes in blood disorders. . Treatments may include:
Medicines to cause blood cell production
Replacing your child’s bone marrow with healthy bone marrow from a donor
During and between treatments, it’s important to prevent complications of aplastic anemia caused by infections, bleeding, or fatigue. This is very important when blood cell counts are low.
Here are some basic tips to keep in mind:
Safe nutrition. It’s important for your child to eat a healthy diet. Your child may be at risk for foodborne illness. Because of this, he or she may need to not eat aged cheeses or drink unpasteurized milk or juices. Your child should not eat undercooked or raw foods. Make sure to cook all foods fully. Wash and peel fresh fruits and vegetables before serving. Don't let your child eat at salad bars or restaurant buffets.
Safe exercise. Regular exercise and playtime is important, and so is resting between activities. If your child gets short of breath when active, let your healthcare provider know. Because your child may be at risk for bleeding, infection, and fatigue, contact sports are usually discouraged.
Preventing infection. Make sure your child gets a flu shot and ask your healthcare provider about other preventive vaccines. Avoid crowds and sick friends or relatives, especially during cold and flu season. Remind your child — and the rest of the family — to wash hands often. Regular dental care will help prevent tooth and gum infections. Keep your child out of public pools and hot tubs, especially if your child’s skin has any open cuts or scrapes.
Learn as much as you can about aplastic anemia and work closely with your child's hematologist and treatment team. Also remember that a serious and recurrent illness like aplastic anemia is stressful for both you and your child. Make sure you both get the support you need. If you or your child is struggling with anxiety or depression, talk with your healthcare provider. Individual counseling, family counseling, or a support group can help.