Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus culture
This test looks for bacteria called methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in a fluid sample from your body.
MRSA is a type of staph bacteria that is resistant to certain antibiotics. These include methicillin and related medicines like oxacillin, penicillin, and amoxicillin. MRSA infections can be life-threatening. Outbreaks can affect patients and visitors in hospitals and other healthcare settings. They can also happen outside of the hospital. This is commonly called community acquired.
For the test, your fluid sample will be put in a dish with special nutrients to help any bacteria grow. It can take up to 48 hours to get the results.
Rapid testing may be available. This type of testing can find MRSA within hours of culturing a sample.
You may need this test if you have symptoms of a staph infection. Symptoms depend on the type and stage of the infection. Most MRSA infections affect the skin. A skin infection is usually red, painful, swollen, and oozing pus.
You may also have this test if you are being treated for a MRSA infection to see whether the treatment is working.
Your healthcare provider may also order a nucleic acid amplification test, such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). PCR is used to find the mecA gene. This gene can make staph bacteria resistant to certain antibiotics.
Other tests are often ordered when cultures are done to find out how far the infection has spread. They may also be done to look for other causes of symptoms. These tests include:
Complete blood count with differential
Chemistry panel, including kidney and liver function tests
Echocardiogram, if your provider thinks you have a bloodstream infection
MRI, if your provider thinks you have a bone infection
Discuss the results of these other tests with your healthcare provider.
Test results may vary depending on your age, gender, health history, and other things. Your test results may be different depending on the lab used. They may not mean you have a problem. Ask your healthcare provider what your test results mean for you.
Normal results are negative, meaning that no bacteria were found in your culture. A positive culture means you may have a MRSA infection.
This test is done with a fluid sample. The sample is often taken from the infection site, such as a wound, using a sterile swab. Fluid samples can also be taken from saliva, urine, or blood. A sample may be taken from your nose to find out whether you are "colonized" with MRSA. That means you have MRSA living on your skin but aren't necessarily infected with MRSA.
For the urine test, your healthcare provider or lab technician will give you a sterile container to collect the sample. For the blood test, a needle is used to draw blood from a vein in your arm or hand.
Having a blood test with a needle carries some risks. These include bleeding, infection, bruising, and feeling lightheaded. When the needle pricks your arm or hand, you may feel a slight sting or pain. Afterward, the site may be sore.
Other factors aren't likely to affect your results.
You don't need to prepare for this test. Be sure your healthcare provider knows about all medicines, herbs, vitamins, and supplements you are taking. This includes medicines that don't need a prescription and any illegal drugs you may use.