Tau protein and amyloid beta 42 peptide test, Alzheimer disease biomarkers
This test checks for proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to help healthcare providers diagnose Alzheimer disease. It helps tell the difference between Alzheimer disease and other forms of dementia. CSF is the fluid surrounding your brain and spinal cord. A low level of a protein called beta amyloid and a high level of a protein called tau may be linked to Alzheimer disease.
You may need this test if you have symptoms of Alzheimer disease. Alzheimer disease causes changes in thinking and behavior. Symptoms include:
Changes in mood and personality
Decreased ability to do daily tasks
No test can definitively indicate Alzheimer disease. Testing for protein levels in your CSF along with physical and mental exams help healthcare providers diagnose Alzheimer disease. You may also have a brain scan to make images of your brain.
Many things may affect your lab test results. These include the method each lab uses to do the test. Even if your test results are different from the normal value, you may not have a problem. To learn what the results mean for you, talk with your healthcare provider.
If you have symptoms of Alzheimer disease, low levels of beta amyloid protein, and high levels of tau protein, your healthcare provider may suspect Alzheimer disease.
This test requires a sample of CSF. It's taken through a lumbar puncture in your lower back. During this procedure, you either sit up and lean forward or lie down on your side. A healthcare provider inserts a needle into your spine and draws out a sample of fluid to be analyzed at a lab.
A lumbar puncture is a safe procedure, but there are some possible risks. The most common risks are:
Discuss these risks with your healthcare provider before the procedure.
Depending on where your testing is done, your results may be different from other people's results. That's because this type of testing is still new, and research needs to be done to standardize test numbers and techniques.
You usually don't need to prepare for this test. Tell your healthcare provider if you have a history of bleeding. You may need to lie down for a while after the test. Ask how much time you should allow for the test and recovery. In addition, be sure your provider knows about all the medicines, herbs, vitamins, and supplements you are taking. This includes medicines that don't need a prescription and any illegal drugs you may use.