No matter how careful you are about animals in your home, or how much care you take when you are outdoors, animal and insect bites and stings are sometimes unavoidable.
Fleas, mites, and chiggers often bite humans. But they are not poisonous. It's sometimes hard to know which type of insect caused the bite, or if the rash is caused by poison ivy or other skin conditions.
Symptoms may include:
Small bumps on the skin
Pain or itching
Dermatitis (inflammation of the skin)
Allergy-like reactions such as swelling or blistering
The symptoms of a flea, mite, or chigger bite may be like other health conditions. Talk with your healthcare provider for a diagnosis.
Your healthcare provider will talk with you about treatment. Treatment may include:
Cleaning the area well with soap and water
Using an antihistamine to help reduce itching, if needed
Applying cool compresses and avoiding heat to help with itching and possible inflammation
Taking acetaminophen for discomfort if needed
Call your healthcare provider if you have any of these:
Pain or itching that doesn't stop
Signs of infection, such as increased redness, warmth, swelling, or fluid leaking
Call 911 or your local emergency medical service (EMS) if the person has signs of a severe allergic reaction such as:
Tightness in the throat or chest
Nausea and vomiting
Ticks are small insects that live in grass, bushes, wooded areas, and along seashores. They attach their bodies onto a human or animal host. They prefer hairy areas such as the scalp, behind the ear, in the armpit, and the groin. They can also attach between fingers and toes. Tick bites often happen at night. And they happen more in the spring and summer months.
To remove a tick:
DoN't touch the tick with your bare hand. If you doN't have a pair of tweezers, go to your nearest healthcare facility where the tick can be removed safely.
Use a pair of tweezers to remove the tick. Grab the tick firmly by its mouth or head as close to your skin as possible.
Pull up slowly and steadily without twisting until it lets go. DoN't squeeze the tick, and don't use petroleum jelly, solvents, knives, or a lit match to kill the tick.
Save the tick and place it in a secure plastic container or sealed bag so it can be tested for disease, if necessary.
Wash the area of the bite well with soap and water and apply an antiseptic lotion or cream.
Call your healthcare provider to find out about follow-up care.
Bees, wasps, yellow jackets, and hornets belong to a class of insects called Hymenoptera. Most insect stings cause only minor discomfort. Stings can happen anywhere on the body and can be painful. Yellow jackets cause the most allergic reactions in the U.S. Stings from these insects cause many more deaths than poisonous snake bites because of severe allergic reactions. In fact, bees usually cause more deaths per year than any other animal in the U.S. because of allergies. Fire ants are usually found in Southern states. They can sting multiple times, and the sites are more likely to become infected.
The two greatest risks from most insect stings are allergic reaction and infection. An infection is more common and less serious. An allergic reaction may cause death if it is severe.
These are the most common symptoms of insect stings. You may experience symptoms differently. Symptoms may include:
Local skin reactions at the site or around the sting such as:
Small amounts of bleeding or drainage
Full-body symptoms may mean a more severe and possibly life-threatening allergic reaction. These symptoms may include:
Tickling in the throat
Tightness in the throat or chest
Breathing problems or wheezing
Nausea or vomiting
Dizziness or fainting
Itching and rash elsewhere on the body
Your healthcare provider will talk with you about treatment. A large local reaction to a sting usually does not lead to a full-body reactions. But it can be life-threatening if the sting happens in the mouth, nose, or throat. This is due to swelling that can close off the airway.
Treatment for local skin reactions only may include:
Remove the stinger by gently scraping across the site with a blunt-edged object, such as a credit card or dull knife. Don't try to pull it out. This may release more venom.
Wash the area well with soap and water.
Apply a cold or ice pack wrapped in a cloth to help reduce swelling and pain. Use this for 10 minutes on and 10 minutes off for 30 to 60 minutes. This will also help with itching.
If the sting happens on an arm or leg, elevate the limb to help reduce swelling.
To help reduce the itching, try 1 or more of these remedies:
Use an over-the-counter product made for insect stings.
Apply an antihistamine or corticosteroid cream or calamine lotion.
Give acetaminophen for pain.
Give an over-the-counter antihistamine, if approved by your healthcare provider. Be sure to follow dosage instructions carefully.
Watch closely during the next hour for any signs of allergic reaction that would need emergency medical treatment.
Call 911 or your local emergency medical service (EMS) and seek emergency care right away if the person is stung in the mouth, nose, or throat area, or there are any signs of a full-body reaction.
Emergency medical treatment may include:
IV (intravenous) antihistamines
Epinephrine auto-injector pen
Corticosteroids or other medicines
To help reduce the possibility of insect stings while outdoors:
Don't wear perfumes, hairsprays, or other scented products.
Don't wear brightly colored clothing.
Don't walk outside barefoot.
Spray your clothing with insect repellent.
Avoid hives and nests. Have the nests removed by professionals.
If an insect comes near you, stay calm and walk away slowly.
If you have a known or possible allergy to stings:
Carry an epinephrine auto-injector (such as an EpiPen) at all times and make sure you know how to use it. These products are available by prescription. If you don't have one, ask your healthcare provider if this medicine is right for you.
Wear long-sleeved shirts and long pants when outdoors.
See an allergist for allergy testing and treatment.