Many things can affect fertility for men and women. Some factors can affect how easily a woman ovulates, gets pregnant, or gives birth to a baby. Men have risk factors, too. Many things can affect the health of their sperm.
Gender words are used here to talk about anatomy and health risk. Please use this information in a way that works best for you and your provider as you talk about your care.
These are things that can affect a woman’s fertility:
Age. Women in their late 30s and older are less fertile than women in their early 20s.
Chronic diseases, such as diabetes, lupus, arthritis, high blood pressure, and asthma
Contact with workplace hazards or toxins
Too much body fat or very low body fat
Abnormal Pap smears treated with cryosurgery or cone biopsy
DES taken by their mother during pregnancy
Sexually transmitted infections
Fallopian tube disease
Abnormalities of the uterus
These are things that can affect a man’s fertility:
History of prostatitis, genital infection, or sexually transmitted infections
Regular contact with radiation, radioactivity, or welding
Regular contact with toxins, such as lead
Regular contact with ethylene dibromide or vinyl chloride
Cigarette or marijuana smoke
Heavy alcohol drinking
Exposure of the genitals to high temperatures
Opioid-like medicines that affect the central nervous system
Mumps after puberty
A genetic problem
A problem that was present at birth (congenital)